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Tuesday, 14 January 2014

What Are Metal Standards and Why Are They Important?

Discerning engineers give great consideration to 
selecting the best and most appropriate material for
construction of component metals.

When sourcing metals, it is of critical importance to have a uniform and consistent means of assuring metal properties meet the desired performance characteristics – from producing mill to the service center. Therein lies the benefit of metal standards. 

Several widely recognized organizations (e.g., ASTM and European standards committees) set standards that specify the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of metal materials. These standards are widely used by refineries, metallurgical laboratories, and manufacturers and provide a means of assuring a consistent grade of metal or alloy from a producer and a uniform methodology for quality and integrity testing.

A clear definition of material properties is essential to all users throughout the supply chain. Metal producers use standards to develop the correct formulations, process parameters, and determine dimensional and tolerance requirements for their production. Engineers use them to select the best-suited metal for a project, both in terms of its manufacturability and its end use.

Metal standards provide a universal technical communication that promotes mutual understanding between the producer, purchaser, and user. Unambiguous test methods ensure product consistency and uniformity, which helps businesses to establish and meet quality objectives.

The ability to demonstrate compliance with widely recognized standards of all metals that are supplied for customers has been and remains an effective means by which NUFIT PIPING SOLUTIONS has differentiated itself in a highly competitive marketplace.

Inconel, Monel, Hastelloy Oh My. What Makes High Temperature Nickel Based Alloys Expensive & Why?

Let's start off by saying that the following types of High Temperature Nickel Based Alloys are all very pricey: Nickel 200, Inconel, Monel Hastelloy & Waspaloy. Now within those grades are subsets, for instance, contained in the Inconel Family are the following grades: Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, Inconel 800H/HT and Inconel 825. Monel has a couple of different grades, Monel 400, Monel R405 and Monel K500. Lastly in Hastelloy, there are Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X and Hastelloy C22. Ok, so that's that.

Now that we have dispensed w/the un-pleasantries we can discuss why all of these types of materials are expensive. First and foremost are their elemental compositions. All of these alloys contain Nickel which is very expensive when compared to the base price of other elements in the steel's composition. Standard grades of 300 series stainless steel might contain 8% - 14% Nickel. Standard High Temp Nickel Alloys contain anywhere from 40% - 75% and up...that is anywhere from 4X to 8x as much as typical 300 series stainless steel. We all know that nickel is an expensive material, but how much does the amount in a given steel impact the total overall cost?

Well the answer to that is relative, but as I discussed in an earlier blog post, nickel pricing is up to 66% of the total cost of stainless steel. Now, that is just for stainless which we know the 300 series contains 8% - 14% Nickel on average. Imagine the grades that contain 40%, all the way to 80% or even Nickel 200 which is almost pure Nickel at 99%. Obviously the more nickel content in a given alloy the more impact on price it will have. We can say for comparison sake that 316 round bar costs $3.00 per pound and contains 12% nickel.
Well, Inconel 625 round bar contains at least 72% Nickel. That's 6 times the amount and therefore it costs at least 6X as much, maybe more depending on other attributes but this is a fitting example as to the reason why there is such a large disparity between standard stainless steel cost and the cost of some of these nickel based alloys. In fact, Inconel 625 round bar DOES cost at least 6X more and that's buying mill quantities, forget a bar here or a couple bars there. The cost would trend upwards from there, again, based on quantity purchased, transportation, source of material...etc.

Another reason why these high temperature nickel based alloys are so expensive is based on their lack of availability, or supply. Not everyone carries them due to their inherently high cost and that means less overall availability which translates to a higher price. Now, the reason they are referred to as High Temp Alloys is because they have properties that allow them to withstand some exceptionally high temperatures in their given applications. Again, in order to withstand an application that maintains an average temperature of 2000 degrees, it requires the metal to be finished/treated a certain way. All that additional processing before the material even hits the shelf costs the mill (manufacturer) money to do, which again, more production costs equal more cost to the distributor thus more cost to the end user. These alloys are expensive, but they all have their very specific uses which we will be discussing in the upcoming posts. Hopefully this has shed a little light on the overall cost structure of these high temp nickel alloys and was a beneficial read.

Why is Stainless Steel Stainless and What Makes Stainless Steel Stainless ???

There are many things in life that I wonder about. Being in the steel industry and selling stainless steel I have at one point in my life asked myself, why do they call it stainless steel? What makes it stainless? It doesn't take much to find out but here is a very brief synopsis of what makes stainless steel stainless so that you can check one more thing off the list in your quest for knowledge.

Harry Brearley Picture from BSSA full article linked below

Stainless Steel might or might not have been invented by a man named Harry Brearley in 1912. Steel has been around for hundreds of years but it hasn't always been stainless. Only after the exact combination of elements had been achieved did we start calling a certain type of steel "stainless". His magic potion contained the keys to what is now called "stainless steel". That being said, the true inventor of stainless is still an ambiguous cloud at best. However, this isn't a discussion on WHO invented stainless but what stainless is and how it's actually stainless. Here is a great article posted by British Stainless Steel Association in regards to the history of stainless as a whole.

So what is in this magic potion that makes a steel not stain or rust? As most of us know if you leave regular steel or metal out in the elements it will rust, oxidize, or stain. Why does stainless not stain? When Harry Brearley Brearley created a steel with 12.8% chromium and 0.24% carbon, that was believed to be the first ever stainless steel. Chromium is the element in stainless that improves the corrosion resistance by forming a chromium oxide film on the steel. This very thin layer, is what allows the steel to be impermeable to rust or staining and when placed under the right conditions, it can also be self-repairing to a certain extent.

There you have it. The answer is Chromium. Chromium is the element when mixed w/other elements in the proper amounts to form the thin layer that protects the steel from rusting, staining or corroding. Hope that helps you in your pursuit of knowledge. 

Monday, 13 January 2014

Inconel Pipe Fitting - Seamless, ERW Welded, Socket-Weld (Forged), Threaded - Manufactured acc. to ASTM B366 & B564

NUFIT PIPING SOLUTIONS have a huge array of Inconel Pipe Fittings, which are manufactured from the superior quality raw materials. These Inconel Pipe Fittings are offered in various sizes and dimensions and can also be customized as per the needs of the client. These can be availed at industrial leading price.

Inconel is a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys. Inconel alloys are typically used in high temperature applications. It is often referred to in English as "Inco" (or occasionally "Inconel"). Common trade names for Inconel Alloy 625 include: Inconel 625, Chronin 625, Altemp 625, Haynes 625, Nickelvac 625 and Nicrofer 6020.

Inconel Specification:

ANSI B16.9
ANSI B16.11

Also according to DIN, AWWA, ISO, etc

Inconel Alloy Grade -

Inconel Alloy
W. Nr.
ASTM / ASME Pressure Fitting
Corrosion Resistant Fitting
Alloy 600
Alloy 601

Alloy 603-GT
Alloy 617

Alloy 625
Alloy 686
Alloy 690

Alloy 718

Alloy X-750

Alloy 800
Alloy 800-H
Alloy 800-HT
Alloy 825

Inconel Butt-Weld Seamless & ERW Welded Pipe Fitting Size:

·         Seamless & ERW Welded - 15 NB to 300 NB in SCH 5, 10, 40, STD, 80, XS, 160, XXS
·         Socket-Weld (Forged) & Threaded (Screwed) - 15 NB to 100 NB in Pressure Rating Class 2000 LBS, 3000 LBS, 6000 LBS, 9000 LBS
·         Customized Fitting

With NACE MR 01 - 75

Inconel Butt-Weld Seamless & ERW Welded Pipe Fitting Form
·         Inconel Elbow 45º
·         Inconel Elbow 90º
·         Inconel Elbow 180º
·         Inconel Bend
·         Inconel Equal Tee
·         Inconel Unequal / Reducing Tee
·         Inconel Concentric Reducer
·         Inconel Eccentric Reducer
·         Inconel Stubend
·         Inconel End Cap
·         Inconel Pipe Nipple

Inconel Socket-Weld & Threaded Pipe Fitting Form - BSP, NPT
·         Inconel Elbow 45º
·         Inconel Elbow 90º
·         Inconel Equal Tee
·         Inconel Unequal / Reducing Tee
·         Inconel Concentric Reducer
·         Inconel Eccentric Reducer
·         Inconel End Cap
·         Inconel Hex Nipple
·         Inconel Full Coupling
·         Inconel Half Coupling
·         Inconel Reducing Coupling
·         Inconel Swage Nipple
·         Inconel End Cap
·         Inconel Hex Head Male Plug
·         Inconel Hex Bushing
·         Inconel Union
·         Inconel Weldolet
·         Inconel Threadolet
·         Inconel Sockolet
·         Inconel Nipolet
·         Inconel sweepolet
·         Inconel Latrolet
·         Inconel Elbolet

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